Data Transmission

Data Transmission

by Past Papers Inside
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Transmission of Data:

  • The transfer of data in the form of bits from one device to another can be described.
  • Some type of medium, for example, fiber optics, etc. is necessary to transmit data.
  • The data can be transmitted from the machine to the printer over a short distance or long distances, for example calling abroad by telephone.
  • For data transmission three key considerations must be considered:


  1. The path for data transfer (one or two way).
  2. Form of transmitting i.e. not one-time bits to pass.
  3. Form of syncing.


Types of Data Transmission:

There are two types of data transmission:

  1. Serial
  2. Parallel


Serial Data Transmission:

  • In serial communication systems, there is a single wire over which data bits are transferred one by one.
  • It is known as serial transmission because bits need to be organized before they are sent over the channel.
  • This way the receiver can receive and arrange data in order and consider it to be errorless.

Serial Data Transmission

  • This data processing is often used where long-distance connectivity is required.
  • In serial communication systems, data transfer speed is slower than in parallel communication systems.
  • There is no problem with synchronization when transmitting serial data.



An example of serial data transmission is the transfer of bits from the computer to the modem for transmission over the phone.


Parallel Data Transmission:

  • Multiple wires in the concurrent transmission networks are transmitted continuously via these parallel wires.
  • This data transmission method is the best practical application over shorter distances.
  • The bit can be skewed when a long-distance synchronization issue is used.
  • Used for internal communications usually in computer networks.
  • It is faster than serial data transmission.

Parallel Data Transmission


An example of parallel data transmission is a ribbon wire that is used to transfer data from the computer to the printer.

Modes of Data Transmission:

There are three modes of data transmission:

  1. Simplex
  2. Duplex
  3. Half-Duplex


Simplex Data Transmission:

In this mode, data is transmitted in one direction only i.e. sender to receiver.


Transfer of data from computer to printer.

Simplex Data Transmission

Duplex Data Transmission:

In this mode, data is transmitted in both directions simultaneously.


Broadband phone connection.

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Duplex Data Transmission

Half-Duplex Data Transmission:

In this mode, data is transmitted in both directions but not simultaneously i.e. not at the same time.


A phone conversation.

Half-Duplex Data Transmission


Error Detection & Correction in Data Transmission:

  • The techniques used for data processing are known as error detection while the transmission of data, sound, and other impairments happen.
  • Error identification allows efficient channel data distribution.
  • It, therefore, decreases the risk of undetected error, i.e. the shift of inappropriate frames.
  • An algorithm of some kind is added to the error detecting code normally transmitted on the channel by the data before transmission of the data.
  • The receiver uses the same algorithm, produces the submitted data’s error code, and then compares it to the end-of-sending Error Code.
  • If all codes are similar then the obtained data is error-free.
  • The submitted information shall otherwise be deemed inaccurate and the applicant shall then take action.

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