Networks and Communications

Networks and Communications

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What are Networking and Communication?

Data communications refer to the transmission of this digital data between two or more computers and a computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that allows computers to exchange data.

The physical connection between networked computing devices is established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet.


What are the types of Computer Networks?

In computer networks, the data is passed in the form of packets. The devices that transmit or receive this data, such as a phone or a computer, are referred to as nodes. There are three main types of networks:

  1. Local Area Network (LAN):

It is usually a small network that is restricted to a small geographic area. A computer network available only to the residents of a building can be called a LAN.

  1. Wide Area Network (WAN):

As the name implies, these networks cover a broad range of geographic areas. WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks so that users and computers can communicate with computers in other regions. An example of a WAN is the much-used and loved the Internet.

  1. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):

MAN is a network that connects the users with computer resources in a geographic area that is larger than LAN but not quite as large as WAN.


What are the basic components of  Computer Networks?


Servers are machines that contain standard network operating files, programs, and systems. Servers give all network users access to network services.

There are several different types of servers and many roles can be supported on a server. Filing servers, print servers, mail servers, servers for correspondence, database servers, print servers, fax servers, web servers are all supported, for example.



Clients are network accessing and utilizing network infrastructure and network-sharing machines. User machines are network users when requesting services from servers and accepting services.


Transmission Media 

Transmission media are the facilities used to interconnect computers in a network, such as twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, and optical fiber cable. Transmission media are sometimes called channels, links, or lines.

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Shared data 

Shared data are data that file servers provide to clients such as data files, printer access programs, and e-mail.


Shared printers and other peripherals 

Shared printers and peripherals are hardware resources provided to the users of the network by servers. Resources provided include data files, printers, software, or any other items used by clients on the network.


Network Interface Card 

Per the network, the computer is fitted with a special Network Interface Card (NIC) extension card. The NIC prepares and sends out data, collects information, and tracks the flow of data between the device and the network.

The NIC transmits frames of data to the physical layer on the transmission side, transmitting data into the physical link. The NIC processes bits from the physical layer on the receiving side and continues to process the message depending on their content.


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Local Operating System 

A local operating system allows personal computers to access files, print to a local printer, and have and use one or more disk and CD drives that are located on the computer.


Network Operating System 

The network operating system is a program that runs on computers and servers and allows the computers to communicate over the network.



Hub is a device that splits a network connection into multiple computers. It is like a distribution center. When a computer request information from a network or a specific computer, it sends the request to the hub through a cable.

The hub will receive the request and transmit it to the entire network. Each computer in the network should then figure out whether the broadcast data is for them or not.


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A switch is a telecommunication device grouped as one of the computer network components. It uses physical device addresses in each incoming message so that it can deliver the message to the right destination or port.



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