System Analysis

System Analysis

by Past Papers Inside
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It is a process of collecting and interpreting facts, identifying the problems, and decomposition a system into its components.

System analysis is conducted to study a system or its parts to identify its objectives. It is a problem-solving technique that improves the system and ensures that all the components of the system work efficiently to accomplish its purpose.

(Analysis specifies what the system should do.)

Systems Design

It is a process of planning a new business system or replacing an existing system by defining its components or modules to satisfy the specific requirements. Before planning, you need to understand the old system thoroughly and determine how computers can best be used to operate efficiently.

System Design focuses on how to accomplish the objective of the system.

System Analysis and Design (SAD) mainly focuses on −

  • Systems
  • Processes
  • Technology

What is a System?

The word System is derived from the Greek word Systema, which means an organized relationship between any set of components to achieve some common cause or objective.


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Constraints of a System

  • A system must have three basic constraints −
  • A system must have some structure and behavior which is designed to achieve a predefined objective.
  • Interconnectivity and interdependence must exist among the system components.
  • The objectives of the organization have a higher priority than the objectives of its subsystems.
  • For example, the traffic management system, payroll system, automatic library system, human resources information system.

Properties of a System

A system has the following properties:


The organization implies structure and order. It is the arrangement of components that helps to achieve predetermined objectives.



It is defined by how the components operate with each other.

For example, in an organization, the purchasing department must interact with the production department and payroll with the personnel department.



Interdependence means how the components of a system depend on one another. For proper functioning, the components are coordinated and linked together according to a specified plan. The output of one subsystem is required by other subsystems as input.


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Integration is concerned with how system components are connected. It means that the parts of the system work together within the system even if each part performs a unique function.


Central Objective

The objective of the system must be central. It may be real or stated. It is not uncommon for an organization to state an objective and operate to achieve another.

The users must know the main objective of a computer application early in the analysis for a successful design and conversion.


Elements of a System

The following diagram shows the elements of a system −

Elements of a System

Outputs and Inputs

The main aim of a system is to produce an output that is useful for its user.

Inputs are the information that enters into the system for processing.

The output is the outcome of processing.



The processor is the element of a system that involves the actual transformation of input into an output.

It is the operational component of a system. Processors may modify the input either totally or partially, depending on the output specification.

As the output specifications change, so does the processing. In some cases, the input is also modified to enable the processor for handling the transformation.


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The control element guides the system.

It is the decision–making subsystem that controls the pattern of activities governing input, processing, and output.

The behavior of a computer system is controlled by the Operating System and software. To keep the system in balance, what and how much input is needed is determined by Output Specifications.



Feedback provides control in a dynamic system.

Positive feedback is a routine that encourages the performance of the system.

Negative feedback is information that provides the controller with information for action.



The environment is the “supersystem” within which an organization operates.

It is the source of external elements that strike on the system.

It determines how a system must function. For example, vendors and competitors of the organization’s environment may provide constraints that affect the actual performance of the business.


Boundaries and Interface

A system should be defined by its boundaries. Boundaries are the limits that identify its components, processes, and interrelationship when it interfaces with another system.

Each system has boundaries that determine its sphere of influence and control.

The knowledge of the boundaries of a given system is crucial in determining the nature of its interface with other systems for successful design.


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