Harmones Biology Revision Notes
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What are Hormones?

Hormones
The hormones are generated by the endocrine gland system and are transport to their target cells, tissues or organs by blood Hormones are released directly into the blood and transported to all parts of the body very rapidly.

Hormones trigger particular biochemical reactions when acting as chemical messages, in different tissue and organ types.
Hormones control cells, tissues, and organ functions that involve continuous adaptation and have a long-term impact compared with, say, the nerve responses of a reflex arc.

The activated cells have a chemical receptor that reacts to the hormone.

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Examples of Hormones and which gland or organ produces them:

The hormones, which are described below, are produced and secreted by various glands called endocrine glands, hence an overall description-the endocrine system.

 

Pituitary Gland

Pituitary Gland
The hypophysis produces several hormones that rule body conditions.

⦁ Sometimes the pituitary gland is known as the master gland because these hormones act on other glands and cause other hormones to release to cause changes anywhere in the body.

⦁ The Pituitary induces FSH and LH hormones that are key to trigger chemicals in the menstrual cycle of women.
⦁ ADH is a hormone released by the hypothalamus, a part of the brain.

⦁ It is then kept in the pituitary gland and released.

 

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Thyroid Gland

thyroid

The thyroid glands generate thyroxin that participates in the regulation of metabolism, cardiovascular rate, and temperature control functions.

⦁ Along with the pituitary, the thyroid is regulated by the hypothalamus, which uses TRH to alert the pituitary gland to produce TSH.

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⦁ TSH binds to receptors in thyroid gland cells to promote thyroxine production.

⦁ It advises the pituitary to stop developing TSH, which prevents thyroid thyroxine development.

⦁ When the thyroxine secreted by the pituitary is decreased, thyroxine rates decline to normal, which means the metabolic rate is steady again.

⦁ The TSH secretion from the pituitary gland to be decreased by higher than ordinary thyroxine levels.

⦁ The thyroid gland is stimulated by TSH to produce more thyroxines, which are normalized again and the rate of metabolism is stabilized again.

 

Adrenal Gland

Adrenal Gland
This abstract system generates dopamine, which the body uses to brace for “battle or flight,” e.g. allows the body to take action when danger is present or when it is at risk.

⦁ The causes of adrenaline often called the fight or combat response – i.e. your body is prepared for some kind of threat quite quickly.

⦁ What happens when your brain senses fear or stress and sends nerve impulses to your surreal glands that are then secreting the bloodstream with adrenaline to prepare you for action.! This happens.

⦁ The increase in ADR induces an improvement in the rhythm of the heart and breathing rhythm of the brain and muscle cells, which increases the availability of oxygen and glucose.

 

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The Pancreas:

The pancreas creates insulin that controls blood glucose levels. The pancreas is a tissue in the uterus. The food we eat plays a key role in transforming into fuel in the cells of the body. The pancreas functions are exocrine and regulate blood sugar, which contributes to the digestion and endocrine function.

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The Ovaries:

The ovaries are the female pelvic reproductive organs that contain the ova and which produce sex hormones as well. They are coupled organs found in the wide ligament below the uterine (Fallopian) tubes on either side of the uterus.

The Testes:

Sperm-producing organs that keep the male reproductive system healthy are the testing (or testicles) of a pair. The tests are referred to as gonads. The ovaries are their female counterpart

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