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Magnetism is one of the basic features of the matter. Electricity is due to magnetism. In reality, due to the movement of electric charges, the fundamental cause of all magnetism effects.

iron, steel, cobalt, and nickel are popular materials for magnets. Owing to their atomic compositions, they are ideal for producing magnets.


  • An atom consists of a central, positively charged nucleus, with negative electrons surrounding it. The electrons usually see that, when rotating along axes, they circle the central nucleus. This vision is not entirely correct, but at this stage, it is all correct. The electrons are charged that induce magnetic effects from the passage of these electrons. The magnets can be described as minute atomic magnets.
  • Both compounds have minor magnetic effects. So why not all magnetic substances? Their atomic structures are responsible. The electrons are arranged in these materials in arrangements that balance each other by their magnetic effects.
  • When these small atomic magnets are properly positioned, a strong combined magnetic effect will be created. The material is currently considered a magnetized material and a correct magnet.
  • The only natural material that acts as a magnet is Lodestone. You can convert electrons into electrons using magnets such as steel and iron.


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Properties of Magnets


Because magnetism is associated with electron movements. No wonder that the fundamental ideas of magnetism are very similar to those of electrostatics.

  • Two kinds of poles are available to all magnets, either north or north, and south or south poles.
  • The strongest magnetic force is at the magnet poles.
  • The magnet field of the bar magnet will interact with the Earth’s magnet field when you freely suspend a bar magnet in the horizontal position. This will cause the magnet bar to rest in the direction north-south when the magnet’s northern pole points to the Earth’s northern polar.
  • Applying various poles as repelling poles. (When charges are reported and different charges are applied).
  • Magnetic materials like iron, steel, cobalt, and nickel attract magnets.
  • The stronger the magnet, the greater the power between other magnets, attractive or repulsive.
  • The closer they are, the greater the magnetic force between them the closer they are.


Magnetic Induction is one of the ways of making magnetic materials like steel and iron into magnets. In other words, magnetic induction is a process of inducing magnetism in an ordinary piece of magnetic material.

This method involves simply placing the magnetic material (soft iron) close to a strong magnet without touching.

The soft iron bar becomes an induced magnet with the end nearer the magnet having opposite polarity to that of the magnet.

Hence, the soft iron bar is attracted and attached to the permanent magnet. The magnetic induction process reveals how magnetic materials can be attracted to magnets.

Induced magnetism is a temporary process. If the permanent magnet is removed, the magnetic material will usually lose its induced magnetism.

Electrical method for magnetization

Electrical method for magnetization

For magnetization, a direct current flowing into a solenoid (a long-insulated wire coiled into a cylinder) produces a magnetic field that, inside the coil, is uniform in strength and direction.

  • The solenoid becomes a magnet.


A steel bar is placed inside the coil for a short while becomes magnetized due to magnetic induction from the solenoid.

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  • The polarities of the magnet depending on the direction of the current flow.

Magnetization by the electric current method creates more powerful magnets than other magnetization methods such as stroking.


Magnetic Field is the region around a magnet where other magnetic material will experience a force.

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A magnetic field can be graphically represented by magnetic field lines which indicates its strength and direction.


The vector quantity is the magnetic field! (The scale AND the direction is both large!)

The point is considered to be a solid magnetic field if the field lines are similar together at a certain point.

Field lines around the magnets demonstrate how a north pole will travel (from the north pole to the south pole).


NEVER touch-field boundaries.

NEVER touch-field boundaries.

The position and pattern of the magnetic field were identified with a compass. The magnet needle is permanent and can be rotated freely on a horizontal plane.

The north pole of the compass magnet is aligned and points in the direction of the magnetic field axis.



Please note that for the last two diagrams, the field lines are NOT pushing against one another. Do NOT be tempted to say that the like poles repel because the field lines push against one another. It is NOT correct!

Interesting tidbits:

The magnetic field strength can be measured using a tesla meter.

Plotting of magnetic field lines with a compass


Apparatus Needed:

Apparatus Needed

Bar magnet, blotting paper, and plotting compass.


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Place the bar magnet in the middle of the paper piece to match the north pole as seen.

Place the box near the magnet pole and mark the ends n and s, by pencil points of the compass needle. Then shift the compass over the second point and mark the other’s current location with a third point before the end of the compass.

Repeat this until the other pole is touched. Join the number of dots to make the magnetic field a field line. To draw other field lines on either side of this magnet use this tool.



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