Air and Atmosphere

Air and Atmosphere

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What is Air?

Air is nothing more than a mixture of gasses.

The air in the atmosphere consists of a small number of other elements (argon, neon, etc.) and is constituted of nitrogen, oxygen, which is the life-sustaining substance for humans or animals.

Ozone, helium and hydrogen are also found higher in the atmosphere.

What does air consist of?

The air we breathe consists mostly of the following gases:

Nitrogen (N2) 78%
Oxygen (O2) 20%
Noble gasses 1%
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 0,03%
Water vapor (H2O) 0,97%


There are very different amounts of water in the air. Other elements are present in the air in small quantities if large amounts of water are present.

The air-water volume will increase by as much as 4%. The lowest water level in the soil is 0.5%. Water presses are closer together with gases so that sufficient space can be taken.

The air is referred to as dry when the quantity of water is very low.

The weight of dry air is 22,4 dm3 and 28,96 grams. If the air contains enough water, it is referred to as humid. Humid air is lighter than dry air (without density).

Other elements are also present in the air, apart from the elements summarized above. However, these elements are very low in percentages. You can find aerosols in the air.

These are dust particles blown by the wind or released during volcanic activity from the earth’s surface. Ashes and gray particles also finish in the air when burning processes take place.

The height varies considerably with the air composition. The oxygen molecules fall apart over ninety kilometers above the surface of the earth and only oxygen atoms remain.

Nitrogen ions also break down about a hundred kilometers above the surface of the earth. The air has no composition we know at this height. The atmosphere is completely different there.

What types of air are there?

If a large amount of air has the same moisture and temperature, it is classified as a different type of air. The air type shall cover a 1,000-kilometer horizontal area.

The height of an air type may vary from 100 m to the entire troposphere.

An air-type is formed by the flow of an air mass three to nine days in an area totally above ground or sea that does not blow from the wind. The air mass receives its specific characteristics in this area.

Overland, deserts, or savannas may be such regions.

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Once the air leaves the area, it will slowly diminish its specific properties and eventually completely disappear.

Air types receiving their specific properties in an overland area are far wetter than air types receiving certain properties above ground.

The types of air over oceans are known as marine air. Airs formed above the ground are known as continental airs.

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Typing ...

We can distinguish four separate basic air types, which can all be divided up between marine and continental types:

1.    Equatorial air.

The temperatures lie between 25 and 30 degrees Celsius and its moisture content is high.

2.    Tropical air.

Marine tropical air has high moisture content and a temperature of around 25 degrees

3.    Celsius.

Continental tropical air has low moisture content and a temperature of over 50 degrees Celsius.

4.    Polar air.

Marine polar air is always humid and is relatively hot in winter and cold in summer. Continental polar air very dry and cold in winter. Temperatures can fall to below -50 degrees Celsius. In summer this type of air is warm, yet still very dry.

5.    Arctic air.

This type of air is very cold. Marine arctic air is warmer than continental arctic air in winter.


Read also: Redox Reaction




We all know from now on that the first element in the periodic table is hydrogen. It is the most straightforward atom. It’s only got one proton.

It has no neutron, the only atom. There is only one electron in the hydrogen atom. It combines to form a complete duplet with another hydrogen atom and thereby makes an H2 hydrogen molecule.

Hydrogen is always present as a diatomic molecule in the original state, that is to say, always as H2. We take a light splint near the mouth of the suspected hydrogen when testing for hydrogen.

It means that the gas is hydrogen if there is a loud ‘pop’ sound.


Read also: ACIDS & BASES




In fact, ozone gas is combined in a molecule in three atoms of oxygen. While it is useful in the air up, at ground level it is a pollutant and harmful.

It is formed by the passage of an electric spark by oxygen. Near railways and electrified wires are high ozone levels. It is also manufactured in motor cars.

The plants are damaged by ozone and humans have an irritant for their nose and neck. It reacts to a photochemical smog that isn’t adaptable to humans through the ultraviolet radiation of the sun.

However, it helps to keep ultraviolet radiation away from the sun in the atmosphere.

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